Archive for the ‘Scales’ Category

Gammes pour Cold Duck Time

In Cold Duck Time, Scales on January 6, 2010 at 7:54 pm

(pdf here)

Gammes pour Recado Bossa Nova

In Recado Bossa Nova, Scales on January 6, 2010 at 7:34 pm

Recado Bossa Nova Gammes (pdf)

Modes pour Ishmael

In Ishmael, Scales on January 6, 2010 at 7:23 pm

pdf  here

Five minor 7 scales & How to Use

In Scales, Theorie on January 6, 2010 at 10:23 am

A minor scale can be defined as any scale with a minor scale-tone tonic chord but without a major 3rd (measured from the scale tonic).

The scale must contain:

  • a minor 3rd
  • a perfect 5th

The minor pentatonic scale and the blues scale are minor scales, but the 8-note dominant scale is not : it contains an ambiguous major 3rd. Neither is the 8-note diminished scale because a minor scale-tone chord can not be formed on its tonic note (it lacks a perfect 5th).

They are (in order of their importance in Jazz):

  1. Dorian mode – characteristic notes : 6 and b7
  2. Harmonic minor scale – characteristic notes : b6 and 7
  3. Aeolian mode (natural minor scale) – characteristic notes : b6 and b7
  4. Melodic minor scale – characteristic notes : 6 and 7
  5. Phrygian mode – characteristic notes : b2b6 and b7

These minor scales are easiest to recognise by ear by knowing their tetrachord components.

The four component tetrachords are:

Uses of the minor scales

Below a brief overview of the most common uses for the various minor scales in Jazz improvisation.

1.  Dorian mode

This is by far the most commonly used minor scale for Jazz improvisation. Use the Dorian mode over minor chords in these settings.

  1. for isolated minor 7th chords : Cm7
  2. in all IIm7 – V7 segments : Cm7 – F7
  3. when preceded by V7 : G7 – Cm7 or Dø – G7 – Cm7
  4. when preceded by 1 or 2 other minor chords : (Dm7 -) Gm7 – Cm7
    (in this case Cm7 is part of a scale-tone chord progression segment of a major scale)

2. Harmonic minor

This scale is never used over minor 7th chords and only occasionally over minor triads.Use this scale over al IIø – V7 segments in songs.

In the segment Gø – C7 use :

G – Ab – Bb – C – Db – E – F – G (IImode F harmonic minor) over  (IIø)

C – Db – E – F – G – Ab – Bb – C (Vmode F harmonic minor) over C7 (V7)

Use the V mode of the harmonic scale over all V7 chords in typically minor songs.

3. Aeolian mode (natural minor scale)

This scale is most commonly used when there are 2 minor 7th chords (which are next to one another on the Circle of Fifths). They then represent two scale-tone chords of a major scale like VIm7 and IIm7, or of a minor scale like Im7 – IVm7.

Use the Dorian mode for the minor 7th chord down stream on the Circle of Fifths.
Use the Aeolian mode for the upstream m7 chord.
Both modes use the same scale tones.

For example for a combination of Cm7 and Fm7 chords use :

C – D – Eb – F – G – Ab – Bb – C (C Aeolian mode) : for Cm7 (VIm7)

F – G – Ab – Bb – C – D – Eb – F (F Dorian mode) : for Fm7 (IIm7)

(Sometimes the C Dorian mode is still preferred over Cm7 to create some additional interest.)

4. Melodic minor

This scale is rarely used for improvisation over minor chords.Its great attraction in Jazz are the modes derived from the melodic minor scale. These are commonly used for altered dominant chords.

5.  Phrygian mode

This mode is very prominent in the composition and improvisation over Spanish flamenco musicIn Jazz the Phrygian mode is mainly used for scale-tone chord segments that contain three minor 7th chords.  They function as : IIIm7 – VIm7 – IIm7. The Phrygian mode is use for the first chord in the row (IIIm7)

In the segment Gm7 – Cm7 – Fm7 use :

G – Ab – Bb – C – D – Eb – F – G (G Phrygian mode) : for Gm7 (IIIm7)

C – D – Eb – F – G – Ab – Bb – C (C Aeolian mode) : for Cm7 (VIm7)

F – G – Ab – Bb – C – D – Eb – F (F Dorian mode) : for Fm7 (IIm7)

Note that all three modes contain the same notes because they are derived from the same major scale. When in doubt as to what scale to use, try out different ones and listen to it.


The ImM7 Chord

Progression: Im – ImM7 – Im7 – VIø – bVImaj7 – V7

The minor Major 7th chord is the scale-tone 7th chord built on the tonic of the harmonic minor scale (and also of the melodic minor scale).

Its main use is as a passing chord between a minor triad and a minor 7th chord.
This chord sequence produces a stepwise (semitone) motion from C –> B –> Bb

  • Cm = C – Eb – G – C
  • CmM7 = C – Eb – G – B
  • Cm7 = C – Eb – G – Bb

The chords produce a continuous line of chord tones that descends stepwise in semitones through the entire progression.

In C minor : C –> B –> Bb –> A –> Ab –> G –> then back to C

This line is most commonly used as a moving bass line

Source: JazClass from Michael Furstner, who developped a very comprehensive Jazz Class course. Thanks to him.


The Five Shapes (Major scale)

In Scales, Technics, Theorie on January 1, 2010 at 12:29 pm

Major scales, Five patterns for Guitar

Simple Shapes/patterns to learn and exercise major scales using the five guitar patterns
in C Major

pdf  here:  The Five Shapes

Recado Bossa 1959 Print by Caterina Valente

In Partitions, Recado Bossa Nova, Scales on November 17, 2009 at 9:39 am

Trouvée sur eBay par notre ami Tofie,  voici la partition de Recado Bossa Nova, chantée par Caterina Valente, et publiée en 1959.

score, lead sheet, music sheet recado bossa nova

Recado Bossa NovaRecado Bosa Nova

Gamme Ethiopienne

In Scales, Technics on October 23, 2009 at 12:16 pm

notePour notre prochain Projet…. la Gamme Ethiopienne:

1,  2,  b3,  4,  5,  b6,  b7,

The Ethiopian scale consists of 7 different notes. Notice how that when you ascend the scale Bb, Eb, and F natural notes are played, and when you descend the scale F#, E natural, and B natural notes are played. This concept is also seen in the Melodic Minor Scale.
Formula: WS, HS, WS, WS, HS, WS, WS

ScaleEthiopianHS = half step (one fret)
WS = whole step (two frets)

Recado Bossa Nova solo

In Recado Bossa Nova, Scales on June 24, 2009 at 11:11 am

De l’album Dippin’ le solo de saxophone ténor de Hank Mobley:

Solo Recado (Hank Mobley)

Autre solo, celui de Lee Morgan

Solo Recado (Lee Morgan)

Chitlins con carne Solos…

In Chitlins Con Carne, Partitions, Scales on May 6, 2009 at 2:11 pm

2 versions faisant date de Chitlins con carne, celle de Kenny Burrell  et celle de Stevie Ray Vaughan. Les solos sont ci-dessous.

Good Bye Pork Pie Hat (Charlie Mingus)

In Good Bye Pork Pie Hat, Scales, Technics on April 2, 2009 at 12:13 pm

Analysis: Goodbye Pork Pie Hat

Goodbye Pork Pie hat is a 12-bar form consisting of three four-bar phrases, in the key of F minor. The melody tends to outline an F blues scale. when viewed as four-bar phrases, the first and second phrases of the melody are not as similar to each other as you’d expect in a traditional blues.

I think it’s open to interpretation, but you would probably not be wrong to look at this as a basic blues form with unusual turnarounds. The first chord of the first phrase is the i (minor). The first chord of the second phrase is the iv (minor). Where we go wrong is on the third phrase–instead of arriving solidly at the V on beat on of bar 9, we detour through two other chords to arrive there at the top of bar 10. But that does set up the return to i in bar 11, which is quite blues-like. I think that in spite of the chord complexity, the phrasing of the melody argues in favor of blues.

So let’s take this apart one phrase at a time…

| F7 Db7 | Gb B7 | Eb7 Db7 | Eb7 F7 |

The usual turnaround for a minor key would be i – III7 – ii – V or possibly some tritone substitutions for some of those chords. The turnaround in the first two bars is similar, but different. The motion is still circle-of-fifths (Db Gb B), but the B chord is a tritone sub for i rather than for V, which is what makes this odd. The motion from B7 to Eb7 probably can’t really be called a cadence–up a third is just about the weakest possible root motion. I think it’s right to look at the second turnaround as setting up the iv chord in bar 5. The first chord (Eb7) is problematic to analyze. The melody in the third bar is extremely close to the first bar. Eb7 as a sub for F7 is unconventional, but one possible interpretation. So, to place these two turnarounds above each other, we have

| F7 Db7 | Gb B7 |

| Eb7 Db7 | Eb7 F7 |

They are similar, but the second one subs Eb7 for F7, and Eb for Gb (a minor third sub for a dominant chord is more familiar, Coltrane did it a lot). The F7 sets up the iv chord in bar 5 very strongly.

| Bbmi7 Db7 | Gmi C7alt | D7b5 G7 | Db7 Gb |

Standard blues would have two bars of iv followed by two of i here. Mingus gives us the iv, and sets us up to expect the i, not just with the C7, but the melody also really sets up a cadence that we get denied. What we do get in bars 7 and 8 is circle of fifths root motion, and some parallelism (bar 8 echoes bar 7 down one half-step, very familiar in Charlie Parker’s blues changes).

| B7 Bb7 | C7 Eb7 | F7 Db7 | Gb B7 ||

This is truly the difficult one to justify in traditional theory terms. What a traditional blues progression would have here is V, iv, then two bars of i. Mingus delays the appearance of the dominant one bar (that’s one way to look at it). He does deliver us a “cadence” sort of by having Gb in bar 8 resolve to B7 at the top of bar 9. But I sure don’t “hear” that as a cadence. What I think is going on instead is a reversal of the iv and V chord. To me the last four bars function like

| iv | V | i | i ||

Viewed this way, the B7 is a dominant sub for the Bb (iv). Eb is a legitimate sub for C7 (Coltrane-style), and we do land at the i in the right spot, and additionally revisit the first turnaround from the first phrase. What I don’t have a great deal of comfort for is the B7 -> F7 “cadence” from the bottom of the form to the top. That would be weak in most cases. It seems to work out okay here though.